20 Questions – Sonography Principles and Instrumentation Practice Exam

Principles and Instrumentation (SPI)

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Question 1
What is comet tail artifact's fundamental mechanism of formation?
A
Reflection
Hint:
Mirror image and comet tail are also reflection related artifacts.
B
Redirection
C
Refraction
D
Rarefaction
Question 2
At the focus the ultrasound beam is ______ ?
A
... where the best depth resolution is obtained.
B
... where the optimal transverse resolution is located.
C
... where the beam has the lowest intensity.
D
... where the sound beam is widest.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The beam is narrowest at the focus. Therefore it will have the best lateral resolution and the highest intensity.
Question 3
The Ultrasonographer/Operator has what control over Demodulation?
A
Total. By decreasing demodulation we increase the operating frequency.
B
Total. By increasing demodulation we decrease the dynamic range.
C
None, it is performed completely by the Ultrasound machine.
D
None. Demodulation is dependant on the operating frequency of the transducer.
Question 4
An epidemiologic study of in utero exposure to ultrasound has never been concentrated on which area?
A
Cancer.
B
Head circumference.
C
Birth weight.
D
Structural abnormalities.
Question 5
An US pulse has a PRP of 0.8 msec, a spatial pulse length of 2.0 mm and a wavelength of 2.0 mm. What is the longitudinal resolution of the system?
A
1.0 mm
B
0.5 mm
C
0.4 mm
D
0.3 mm
Question 5 Explanation: 
The equation for LARD Resolution is SPL / 2
Question 6
Increasing the gain has roughly the same effect as?
A
Increasing rectification
B
Increasing attenuation
C
Increasing compression
D
Decreasing attenuation
Question 7
A reduction of intensity to 1/2 its original value is what in dB?
A
-3
B
6
C
-6
D
3
Question 8
What is true of acoustic speckle?
A
Nothing can be done to correct it.
B
Its effects are mild and it tends to slightly degrade images.
C
It's effects are not noticeable.
D
It is a rare artifact that does not occur in real-time imaging.
Question 9
The beam is narrowest at what point?
A
At the Focus
B
In the Fraunhofer zone
C
In the far field
D
In the near field
Question 9 Explanation: 
The definition of the natural focus is where the beam is the narrowest.
Question 10
Of the following which is a process that redirects the beam intensity?
A
Scattering
B
Shearing
C
Absorption
D
Compression
Question 11
Which of the following characteristics will not apply to a transducer that will be used for imaging?
A
Low Q.
B
High sensitivity
C
Wide bandwidth.
D
Damped.
Question 11 Explanation: 
Q factor is damping. So it will be damped but with a low Q we have a wide bandwidth.
Question 12
The lateral resolution of 4 ultrasound machines are listed below. Which of the systems would produce the finest quality picture?
A
3 mm
B
1 m
C
2 cm
D
4 um
Question 12 Explanation: 
Smallest Value= Best Resolution This shows the smallest reflectors the machine can separate.
Question 13
Lateral resolution is decreased by which of the following?
A
Increasing the PRF.
B
Passing the pulse through an acoustic lens.
C
Decreasing the number of cycles in a pulse.
D
Increasing damping material.
Question 14
Acoustic speckle has which of the following characteristics?
A
Nothing can be done to correct it.
B
Its effects are mild and it tends to slightly degrade images.
C
Its effects profoundly affect the image.
D
It is a rare artifact that does not occur in real-time imaging.
Question 15
The contrast of the display is affected by?
A
Receiver amplification
B
Echo intensity
C
Dynamic Range
D
Actual brightness setting of the display
Question 16
Path length x attenuation coefficient gives you what value?
A
Attenuation / cm2
B
Attenuation in dB
C
Intensity in dB
D
Intensity / area
Question 16 Explanation: 
Attenuation = path length x attenuation coefficient Example: A sound beam travels 10 cm in soft tissue. The attenuation coefficient is 3 dB/cm. The total attenuation of the sound beam is 30 dB. Attenuation = 10 cm x 3dB/cm = 30dB
Question 17
Venous resistance and arterial resistance are what?
A
Multipliers of each other
B
Dissimilar
C
Inversely related
D
Similar
Question 17 Explanation: 
For our purposes we don't get into the intricacies of vascular resistance. Just remember that venous and arterial vessels have similar resistance. We deal with systemic resistance.
Question 18
Sound traveling through a medium is affected by the medium. This phrase describes the effect.
A
Cavitation.
B
Acoustic propagation properties.
C
Transmission.
D
Heat.
Question 19
What is true of an ultrasound beam at the focus?
A
The optimal lateral resolution is located there.
B
Best depth resolution is obtained.
C
Beam has the lowest intensity.
D
The sound beam is widest.
Question 19 Explanation: 
The beam is narrowest at the focus. Therefore it will have the best lateral resolution and the highest intensity.
Question 20
In which region of the beam is focusing most effective?
A
Throughout the entire length.
B
The shallow near zone.
C
The far end of the near zone.
D
Deep in the far zone.
Question 20 Explanation: 
This is the natural focal zone.
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Comments

  1. Jessica Garcia says:

    Need to study lots more!

  2. sarla shah says:

    i will

  3. sarla shah says:

    suggest me books

  4. sarla shah says:

    thanks

  5. sarla shah says:

    need to study