20 Questions – Sonography Principles and Instrumentation Practice Exam

Principles and Instrumentation (SPI)

Congratulations - you have completed Principles and Instrumentation (SPI).You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%.Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%Save your results %%FORM%%

Quiz Results

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
Your answers are highlighted below.
Question 1
What is the upper limit intensity for the SPTA of a focused ultrasound wave with no observed bio-effects?
A
100 mW/cm2
B
1 mW/cm2
C
1 W/cm2
D
10 W/cm2
Question 1 Explanation: 
Bioeffects intensity limit: SPTA >100 mW/cm2 Unfocused >1 W/cm2 or 1000 mW/cm2 FocusedExam duration has the greatest effect on patient exposure.HIGHEST output intensities used with pulsed doppler. Lowest output intensities are with gray-scale imaging.
Question 2
The best angle to have the source of the originating signal is what?
A
0, 180 degrees
B
90 degrees
C
45 degrees
D
30, 60 degrees
Question 2 Explanation: 
0 or 180 is preferred as you are able to detect close to 100% of the doppler shift. Because the nature of Ultrasound and having to penetrate from an off angle, 30 - 60 degrees is the second best location. No Doppler shift is obtained at 90 degrees since the cosine of 90 degrees is 0. Because it's difficult to get to a true 0 degree angle the optimal Doppler angle lies between 30 and 60 degrees. I remember this by thinking of how Police Officers use doppler radar to determine your car's speed. They stand facing down the street as close to 0 degrees as they can get. They don't aim the gun at 90 degrees. They won't get a signal.
Question 3
What is true of an ultrasound beam at the focus?
A
Beam has the lowest intensity.
B
Best depth resolution is obtained.
C
The sound beam is widest.
D
The optimal lateral resolution is located there.
Question 3 Explanation: 
The beam is narrowest at the focus. Therefore it will have the best lateral resolution and the highest intensity.
Question 4
What determines the lateral resolution of the US system?
A
The PRF.
B
The length of the sound pulse.
C
The duration of the sound pulse.
D
The width of the pulse.
Question 4 Explanation: 
LATA is equal to the beam width.
Question 5
Intensity can be found with which equation?
A
I = p x d (power multiplied by diameter)
B
I = a x c (Amplitude multiplied by circumference)
C
I = p / area (power divided by the area)
D
I = a / area (amplitude divided by the)
Question 5 Explanation: 
Seriously, I remembered this with the phrase "I pee over an area" I = p / area
Question 6
If the thickness of the 2 substances forming the interface is increased then the amount of beam reflected is…?
A
Decreased
B
Doubled
C
Unchanged
D
Increased
Question 6 Explanation: 
Reflection = (Z2 - Z1)/(Z2 + Z1) Thickness of the medium isn't involved in this equation.
Question 7
Spectral analysis is done by?
A
Smoothing
B
Autocorrelation
C
Rectification
D
Demodulation
Question 7 Explanation: 
Autocorrelation is like finding the average shape between a square and a triangle. It has to find something in between. It takes many signals that are different and finds what's similar. Finds the average.
Question 8
Demodulation is completed in what 2 steps.
A
Transmitting and Converting
B
Scanning and Converting
C
Interpolating and Reducing
D
Rectification and Smoothing (Enveloping)
Question 9
Specular reflectors have physical dimensions that are what size in relation to the wavelength?
A
Smaller
B
Equal
C
Greater
D
Size is not important
Question 10
An US pulse has a PRP of 0.8 msec, a spatial pulse length of 2.0 mm and a wavelength of 2.0 mm. What is the longitudinal resolution of the system?
A
0.5 mm
B
0.3 mm
C
0.4 mm
D
1.0 mm
Question 10 Explanation: 
The equation for LARD Resolution is SPL / 2
Question 11
Beams traveling in a direction different from the main array are what?
A
Spicules
B
Refraction
C
Grating lobes
D
Caudate lobes
Question 11 Explanation: 
Side lobes are from a single beam, grating lobes are from an array.
Question 12
Of the following, what produces shadow artifact?
A
Refraction
B
Attenuation
C
Reflection
D
Reverberation
Question 13
T=1/f is what equation? [Time (microseconds) = 1 / frequency (MHz)]
A
Amplitude of a wave
B
Period of a wave
C
Time of a wave
D
Frequency of a wave
Question 14
Temporal resolution refers to what?
A
The ability to resolve structures in relation to space.
B
The ability to resolve structures in relation to each other.
C
The ability to resolve structures in relation to time.
D
The ability to resolve structures in relation to distance.
Question 14 Explanation: 
Temporal resolution is synonymous with frame rate. Typical frame rates in imaging systems are 30-100 Hz. The temporal resolution or frame rate = 1/(time to scan 1 frame). Frame rate can drop down to 5 Hz. When scanning you would notice this because your image would barely be moving. This happens when there are multiple focal zones and a great depth. It takes a lot of time to create each frame so the rate has to be low.
Question 15
Acoustic speckle has which of the following characteristics?
A
It is a rare artifact that does not occur in real-time imaging.
B
Its effects profoundly affect the image.
C
Nothing can be done to correct it.
D
Its effects are mild and it tends to slightly degrade images.
Question 16
Mirror image artifact manifests the associated anatomic structure how?
A
Sometimes shallower on the produced image than physically in the body.
B
Never deeper on the produced image than physically in the body.
C
Sometimes the same depth on the produced image as in the body.
D
Always deeper on the produced image than physically in the body.
Question 16 Explanation: 
It will be deeper because it takes an extra path back. This adds time. So the machine believes that it originated deeper.
Question 17
The typical frame rate of an Ultrasound system is?
A
Always 78 Hz
B
Between 5 MHz and 40 MHz
C
Between 40 Hz and 400 Hz
D
Between 30 Hz and 100 Hz
Question 17 Explanation: 
Temporal resolution is synonymous with frame rate. Typical frame rates in imaging systems are 30-100 Hz. The temporal resolution or frame rate = 1/(time to scan 1 frame). Frame rate can drop down to 5 Hz. When scanning you would notice this because your image would barely be moving. This happens when there are multiple focal zones and a great depth. It takes a lot of time to create each frame so the rate has to be low.
Question 18
The width of the beam is dependent on what?
A
Frequency
B
Wavelength
C
Amplitude
D
Depth
Question 18 Explanation: 
The beam gets narrower in the near zone. At the natural focus it diverges and grows larger. Since the beam width does not stay constant as it travels the deeper it goes the more it changes.
Question 19
Reflectors that are closer together than the width of the beam create what artifact?
A
Pulse length artifact
B
Transverse artifact
C
Pulse Width artifact
D
Side lobe artifact
Question 19 Explanation: 
Also known as lateral resolution artifact and beam width artifact. Basically they are shown as a single point because the resolution of the image is only as good as the minimal thickness of the beam at that depth.
Question 20
Comet tail artifact is produced by?
A
Weak reflectors, closely spaced, low propagations speeds.
B
Strong reflectors and high propagation speeds.
C
Strong reflectors, widely spaced, high propagations speeds.
D
Strong reflectors and low propagations speeds.
Question 20 Explanation: 
Comet tail is a reverberation artifact. Instead of the sound reverberating between two separate reflectors it's actually reverberation within the structure and that reverberation causes the artifact.
Once you are finished, click the button below. Any items you have not completed will be marked incorrect. Get Results
There are 20 questions to complete.
List
Return
Shaded items are complete.
12345
678910
1112131415
1617181920
End
Return

The following two tabs change content below.
I am the founder and lead Instructor here at ExamRefresh.com. I strive to help those that are entering the field of Ultrasound to be the best that they can be. Ultrasound is my passion.

Latest posts by Franco (see all)

Comments

  1. Jessica Garcia says:

    Need to study lots more!

  2. sarla shah says:

    i will

  3. sarla shah says:

    suggest me books

  4. sarla shah says:

    thanks

  5. sarla shah says:

    need to study