20 Questions – Sonography Principles and Instrumentation Practice Exam

Principles and Instrumentation (SPI)

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Question 1
Pulse Length is related to pulse duration how?
A
2X.
B
They are independent of each other.
C
Directly.
D
Inversely.
Question 1 Explanation: 
As pulse length increases so does pulse duration. It takes longer to create the pulse, and it takes longer for the pulse to travel and return.
Question 2
Pressure, density and particle motion are what in relation to sound?
A
Wave patterns
B
Units
C
Motion variables
D
Acoustic variables
Question 3
Acoustic speckle is an artifact produced by what?
A
Large reflectors in the medium.
B
Interference of tiny acoustic wavelets.
C
Accurate display of tiny reflectors.
D
Resonance of particles in the near field.
Question 4
Reflectors that are closer together than the width of the beam create what artifact?
A
Side lobe artifact
B
Transverse artifact
C
Azimuthal artifact
D
Pulse length artifact
Question 4 Explanation: 
Also known as Beam width artifact, lateral resolution artifact and Pulse width artifact. Basically they are shown as a single point because the resolution of the image is only as good as the minimal thickness of the beam at that depth.
Question 5
The term Heterogeneous in relation to a sonographic image means?
A
When the imaged structure has a smooth, even appearance
B
A structure that appears darker than the surrounding structures
C
A structure that appears lighter than the surrounding structures
D
When the imaged structure has a non-uniform, uneven appearance
Question 5 Explanation: 
The prefix Hetero- means "different". Also described as Inhomogeneous In (not) homo (the same) geneous (composition)
Question 6
-20dB means that the intensity is reduced to what portion of its original power?
A
-10x
B
1/100
C
10x
D
1/10
Question 7
What is the unit for the amplitude of an acoustic wave pertaining to pressure?
A
watts
B
atmosphere
C
guass
D
kelvin
Question 7 Explanation: 
Units of acoustic variables. Cm will be used when talking about particle motion, atmosphere will be used when talking about pressure.
Question 8
Artifacts associated with axial resolution are the result of what?
A
Multiple reflections
B
Pulse length
C
Attenuation
D
Beam width
Question 8 Explanation: 
Axial Resolution = Spatial Pulse Length
Question 9
Side lobes usually display which artifact?
A
Hollow structure's appearing anechoic on the image
B
Hollow structure's appearing "filled-in" on the image
C
Reflectors appearing too deep on the image
D
The bending of the sound beam due to difference in acoustic impedance
Question 10
This type of artifact causes an ultrasound reflection to be placed at an incorrect depth.
A
Longitudinal resolution
B
Lateral incertitude
C
Shadowing
D
Range ambiguity
Question 11
Filtering has what effect on bandwidth?
A
Opens
B
Widens
C
None/not related
D
Narrows
Question 12
A _____ pulse repetition period generally will produce better temporal resolution?
A
Focused
B
High
C
Fractional
D
Low
Question 12 Explanation: 
This is because the time for each cycle is low, or short. So it's possible to make more. The more you have in a small amount of time the better the temporal resolution.
Question 13
Comet tail artifact is similar to ring down artifact. What characteristic causes the traditional "comet tail"?
A
Increasing strength of the return echo reverberations.
B
Cavitation within the originating echogenic reflector.
C
Gas trapped within the structure.
D
Closely spaced reverberations that merge together.
Question 14
What is the process that transforms the beam energy into another form of energy (typically heat)?
A
Refraction
B
Absorption
C
Reflection
D
Scattering
Question 15
Path length x attenuation coefficient gives you what value?
A
Intensity in dB
B
Intensity / area
C
Attenuation / cm2
D
Attenuation in dB
Question 15 Explanation: 
Attenuation = path length x attenuation coefficient Example: A sound beam travels 10 cm in soft tissue. The attenuation coefficient is 3 dB/cm. The total attenuation of the sound beam is 30 dB. Attenuation = 10 cm x 3dB/cm = 30dB
Question 16
What is a shadow artifact?
A
The absence of echos behind a highly reflective surface
B
A structure that appears lighter than the surrounding structures
C
Increased echos behind highly reflective surface
D
A structure that reflects 100% of the sound wave
Question 16 Explanation: 
A highly reflective structure basically returns the whole sound beam and leaves nothing to image the structures behind. So you have a black, empty space. A shadow. Just like your body blocks all the light and leaves a dark space.
Question 17
As the operator increases the maximum imaging depth the Duty Factor (DF)...?
A
Duty Factor (DF) is unrelated to depth.
B
Decreases
C
Unchanged
D
Increases
Question 17 Explanation: 
Duty Factor (DF) is inversely related to depth, this is because the PRP increases with depth and has a constant Pulse Duration (PD). Since you are sending a long pulse you also wait a long time. So the machine is not working as much.
Question 18
Brightness of the display is affected by?
A
Actual brightness setting of the display
B
Contrast
C
Echo length
D
Dynamic Range
Question 19
This artifact is not affected by the shape and structure of an ultrasound pulse.
A
Slice thickness
B
Mirror imaging
C
Longitudinal resolution
D
Lateral resolution
Question 20
Beams traveling in a direction different from a single main beam are what?
A
Refraction
B
Side lobes
C
Spicules
D
Caudate lobes
Question 20 Explanation: 
Side lobes are from a single beam, grating lobes are from an array.
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Comments

  1. Jessica Garcia says:

    Need to study lots more!

  2. sarla shah says:

    i will

  3. sarla shah says:

    suggest me books

  4. sarla shah says:

    thanks

  5. sarla shah says:

    need to study