20 Questions – Sonography Principles and Instrumentation Practice Exam

Principles and Instrumentation (SPI)

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Question 1
Spectral analysis is done by?
A
Rectification
B
Smoothing
C
Demodulation
D
Correlation Function
Question 1 Explanation: 
Also known as Autocorrelation. It is like finding the average shape between a square and a triangle. It has to find something in between. It takes many signals that are different and finds what's similar. Finds the average.
Question 2
A system has a radial resolution of 0.5 mm at the beam's focus. The best estimation of the radial resolution 4 cm deep to the focus is what?
A
0.5 mm
B
Less than 0.5 mm
C
Greater than 0.5 mm
D
2.0 mm
Question 2 Explanation: 
LARD is determined by SPL it is not affected by focusing.
Question 3
The following characteristic is true of all waves.
A
They travel through a medium.
B
They carry energy from one site to another.
C
Their amplitudes do not change.
D
They travel in a straight line.
Question 3 Explanation: 
A wave is a transfer of energy from one point to another without the transfer of material.
Question 4
The typical frame rate of an Ultrasound system is?
A
Between 5 MHz and 40 MHz
B
Always 78 Hz
C
Between 40 Hz and 400 Hz
D
Between 30 Hz and 100 Hz
Question 4 Explanation: 
Temporal resolution is synonymous with frame rate. Typical frame rates in imaging systems are 30-100 Hz. The temporal resolution or frame rate = 1/(time to scan 1 frame). Frame rate can drop down to 5 Hz. When scanning you would notice this because your image would barely be moving. This happens when there are multiple focal zones and a great depth. It takes a lot of time to create each frame so the rate has to be low.
Question 5
The width of the beam is dependent on what?
A
Depth
B
Wavelength
C
Frequency
D
Amplitude
Question 5 Explanation: 
The beam gets narrower in the near zone. At the natural focus it diverges and grows larger. Since the beam width does not stay constant as it travels the deeper it goes the more it changes.
Question 6
"According to research it is indicated that cavitation ______?
A
... can be lethal to living things.
B
... cannot occur with short pulses.
C
... effects are purely theoretical.
D
... never occurs.
Question 7
Lateral resolution is decreased by which of the following?
A
Increasing damping material.
B
Passing the pulse through an acoustic lens.
C
Increasing the PRF.
D
Decreasing the number of cycles in a pulse.
Question 8
An acoustic wave has a 40 lb/in2 maximum density and a 20 lb/in2 minimum density. What is the amplitude of the wave?
A
60 lb/in2
B
20 lb/in2
C
10 lb/in2
D
40 lb/in2
Question 8 Explanation: 
max-min / 2
Question 9
Which of the following causes mirror image artifact?
A
Propagation speed error
B
Reflection
C
Attenuation
D
Refraction
Question 9 Explanation: 
This is when an echo reflects off axis of the beam, then reflects off of another surface and returns to the transducer. The reflection is detected by the machine as having originated from the second location.
Question 10
Carotid Ultrasound Flow Practice QuestionIn this image what is the direction of flow?
A
Cannot be determined from this image.
B
Monophasic.
C
Towards the Transducer.
D
Away from the Transducer.
Question 10 Explanation: 
Using the color scale on the image you can see that red is towards the transducer, while blue is away. If you get this image on the registry make sure you see the color scale and don't just guess the direction. Many questions won't have the color scale and you will assume the direction.
Question 11
What is a shadow artifact?
A
A structure that appears lighter than the surrounding structures
B
The absence of echos behind a highly reflective surface
C
Increased echos behind highly reflective surface
D
A structure that reflects 100% of the sound wave
Question 11 Explanation: 
A highly reflective structure basically returns the whole sound beam and leaves nothing to image the structures behind. So you have a black, empty space. A shadow. Just like your body blocks all the light and leaves a dark space.
Question 12
Waves that reach the same location at the same time combine together, this effect is called what?
A
Interference.
B
Inference.
C
Longitudinal interaction.
D
Rarefaction.
Question 13
Specular reflectors have physical dimensions that are what size in relation to the wavelength?
A
Greater
B
Size is not important
C
Smaller
D
Equal
Question 14
If you have two near identical systems emitting with a different Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) which system will have the farthest focus?
A
The focus depth will be the same on both systems
B
The system with the higher PRF
C
The system with lower PRP
D
The system with higher PRP
Question 14 Explanation: 
The focus depth is not dependent on the PRP or PRF.
Question 15
An ultrasound wave is denoted by which units for power?
A
Watts
B
kg/cm2
C
amplitude
D
dB/cm
Question 16
Acoustic speckle is an artifact produced by what?
A
Large reflectors in the medium.
B
Resonance of particles in the near field.
C
Accurate display of tiny reflectors.
D
Interference of tiny acoustic wavelets.
Question 17
Which of the following will improve a system's temporal resolution?
A
Increased line density.
B
Increased sector angle.
C
Increased frequency.
D
Increased PRF.
Question 18
Doppler shift is shown in what units?
A
cm/3
B
Hz
C
MHz
D
cm/s
Question 19
This type of artifact causes an ultrasound reflection to be placed at an incorrect depth.
A
Longitudinal resolution
B
Lateral incertitude
C
Shadowing
D
Range ambiguity
Question 20
What produces a shadow artifact?
A
Two or more strong reflectors that are parallel to the beam
B
The angle of incidence
C
Low attenuation through a cystic structure
D
Attenuation through a highly reflective structure
Question 20 Explanation: 
A highly reflective structure basically returns the whole sound beam and leaves nothing to image the structures behind. So you have a black, empty space. A shadow. Just like your body blocks all the light and leaves a dark space.
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Comments

  1. Jessica Garcia says:

    Need to study lots more!

  2. sarla shah says:

    i will

  3. sarla shah says:

    suggest me books

  4. sarla shah says:

    thanks

  5. sarla shah says:

    need to study