Ob/Gyn Flashcards. Read the Question then click “show answer” to see the answer.

Ob/Gyn Flashcards

Question 1
In the absence of masses in the nongravid patient, the uterus, ovaries, and adnexa are situated in the true pelvis or false pelvis?
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Question 1 Explanation: 
True pelvis
Question 2
This muscle arises at the iliac crest and extends inferiorly until it merges with the psoas major. It forms the ilac fossa on both of the pelvic side walls.
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Question 2 Explanation: 
Iliacus muscle (false pelvis)
Question 3
This ligament extends posterolaterally from the supravaginal cervix, encircles the rectum, and inserts into the fascia over the sacrum.
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Question 3 Explanation: 
Sacro-uterine ligament (suspensory)
Question 4
A false knot of the umbilical cord is charactarized by what?
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Question 4 Explanation: 
Blood vessels that are longer than the cord
Question 5
What is the function of the suspensory ligaments?
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Question 5 Explanation: 
To attach the ovaries to pelvic wall.
Question 6
What are some advantages to Chorionic Villi Sampling (cvs)?
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Question 6 Explanation: 
1. Done earlier than amnio (10-12 weeks) 2. Faster results (1 week) 3. More options due to quicker results
Question 7
Which ligaments support the uterus and ovaries?
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Question 7 Explanation: 
Suspensory ligaments
Question 8
What angle does the heart typically have?
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Question 8 Explanation: 
45 degrees to the left
Question 9
Central section of the skeleton / positioned between the lower end of the spine, which it supports, and the lower extremeties, upon which it rests.
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Question 9 Explanation: 
Pelvic Girdle
Question 10
What is the pelvis divided into?
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Question 10 Explanation: 
False pelvis and true pelvis, divided by an imaginary plane running from the sacral prominence to the upper margin of the pubic symphysis.
Question 11
This condition is also known as a myelomeningocele, meningocele, and/or rachischisis and can be defined as a midline vertebral defect, resulting in exposure of neural contents to the amniotic fluid.
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Question 11 Explanation: 
Spina Bifida
Question 12
What is the most common Ultrasound finding associated with Patau's syndrome?
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Question 12 Explanation: 
Holoprosencephaly
Question 13
Of the false pelvis and the true pelvis which sits below the imaginary plane and is further divided into pelvic inlet and pelvic outlet?
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Question 13 Explanation: 
True pelvis
Question 14
Which ligaments bind the pelvic bones together?
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Question 14 Explanation: 
Osseous ligaments
Question 15
This heart valve sits between the left atrium and left ventricle.
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Question 15 Explanation: 
Bicuspid
Question 16
HCG is produced by what?
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Question 16 Explanation: 
Trophoblastic cells of the placenta
Question 17
Of the pelvic inlet or the pelvic outlet, which is the part of the true pelvis bounded by the pubic bones anteriorly and the sacral promontory posteriorly?
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Question 17 Explanation: 
Pelvic Inlet
Question 18
These muscles attach to the side of the true pelvis and extend medially to fuse with the opposite side, and thus form the floor of the pelvic cavity.
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Question 18 Explanation: 
Levator ani muscles (true pelvis)
Question 19
Around day 23, the primary yolk sac is pinched off by the extra embryonic coelom thus forming what?
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Question 19 Explanation: 
Secondary yolk sac
Question 20
An embryo with definite cardiac acticity should be well visualized transvaginially when the Mean Gestational Sac diameter (MSD) reaches what size?
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Question 20 Explanation: 
16mm
Question 21
Froglike appearance with the absence of skull and of the cerebral hemispheres is what abnormality?
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Question 21 Explanation: 
Anencephaly Coronal view through the fetal face will show bulging eyes with the absence of the frontal bones, giving the appearance of a frog.
Question 22
This is where there is a gestational sac in which the embryo failed to develop. Findings will include a large empty gest sac, no yolk sac, embryo, or amnion present.
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Question 22 Explanation: 
Anembryonic pregnancy / Blighted ovum
Question 23
This fetal abnormality is not considered a neural tube defect since it occurs when the mesenchyme does not migrate over brain.
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Question 23 Explanation: 
Acrania
Question 24
What begins at the beginning of the 5th week?
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Question 24 Explanation: 
Organogensis
Question 25
Of the pelvic inlet or the pelvic outlet, which part of the true pelvis is bounded by the ischial tuberosities laterally and the coccyx posteriorly?
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Question 25 Explanation: 
Pelvic Outlet
Question 26
Where does the word pelvis come from?
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Question 26 Explanation: 
Latin and Greek, meaning "dish" or "bowl"
Question 27
This organ is never herniated into the base of the umbilical cord. Any evidence of this outside the anterior abdominal wall should be considered abnormal.
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Question 27 Explanation: 
Liver
Question 28
This fetal abnormality (highly related to chromosomal abnormalities) cannot be differentiated from normal physiologic bowel migration in the first trimester.
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Question 28 Explanation: 
Omphalocele. Must be diagnosed after 12-14 weeks.
Question 29
A mature ovum is released on which day of the menstrual cycle?
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Question 29 Explanation: 
14
Question 30
This condition is acquired from a prior irritation of cervix. Post-menopausal women are usually asymptomatic while menopausal women may have a fluid filled uterus with oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea with cramping.
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Question 30 Explanation: 
Cervical stenosis
Question 31
What can you assume if there is fluid within the fetal bladder and visible amniotic fluid?
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Question 31 Explanation: 
You may assume that at least one kidney is functioning properly.
Question 32
What is the function of the ovarian ligaments?
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Question 32 Explanation: 
To attach the ovaries to uterus.
Question 33
This ligament is situated anterior and inferior to the broad ligaments and fallopian tubes. They attach the uterine cornua to the anterior pelvic wall.
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Question 33 Explanation: 
Round ligament (suspensory)
Question 34
Which phase of the menstrual cycle will have ovaries that have many primary follicles and a uterus that is shedding the superficial layer of the endometrium? Generally days 1-4.
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Question 34 Explanation: 
Menstrual phase
Question 35
This anomaly is characterized by large cranial defects, facial cleft, large body wall defects and limb anomalies.
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Question 35 Explanation: 
Limb-body wall complex
Question 36
This is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of the trophoblastic cells in the first trimester. It is also known as gestational trophoblastic disease.
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Question 36 Explanation: 
Molar pregnancy
Question 37
What are the five parameters of a Bio Physical Profile (BPP)?
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Question 37 Explanation: 
1. Cardiac non-stress test 2. Fetal breathing movements 3. Gross fetal body movement 4. Fetal tone 5. Amniotic fluid volume
Question 38
This ventral wall defect is not associated with increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities.
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Question 38 Explanation: 
Gastroschisis
Question 39
A false knot of the umbilical cord is charactarized by what?
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Question 39 Explanation: 
Blood vessels that are longer than the cord.
Question 40
When this protein is elevated it is associated with incorrect dates, multi-gestation pregnancies, open neural tube defects and/or ventral wall defects.
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Question 40 Explanation: 
Maternal Serum Alpha Fetal Protein (msafp, afp) Abnormal is typically > or equal to 2 MoM (multiples of the median)
Question 41
Name the four bones of the bony pelvis.
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Question 41 Explanation: 
Sacrum (posterior) Coccyx (posterior) Two innominate bones (fusion of the ilium, ischium, and the pubis/ anterior and lateral)
Question 42
Of the false pelvis and the true pelvis which sits above the imaginary plane and is bounded by the iliac wings/ is a broad shallow cavity that supports the abdominal viscera (bowel)?
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Question 42 Explanation: 
False pelvis
Question 43
This ligament arises superiorly and laterally from the uterus and inferiorly from the vagina to provide primary support for the uterus.
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Question 43 Explanation: 
Cardinal ligament (suspensory)
Question 44
Almost all cases of spina bifida are associated with what condition? This condition is characterized by herniation of the cerebellar vermis through the foramen Magnum.
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Question 44 Explanation: 
Arnold-Chiari type II malformation In these cases, the fourth ventricle is dislocated towards the neural canal, the posterior fossa is shallow, and the tentorium is also displaced downwards. This finding is amost invariabley associated with obstructive hydrocephalus.
Question 45
What is the most accurate measurement for fetal age?
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Question 45 Explanation: 
Crown Rump Length (CRL) accurate to +/- 5-7 days
Question 46
This hypoechoic region of the brain sits in the midline and surrounds the third ventricle.
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Question 46 Explanation: 
Thalamus
Question 47
This ligament extends from the lateral aspects of the uterus, and attaches to the lateral pelvic side walls.
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Question 47 Explanation: 
Broad ligament (suspensory) ** important, know this
Question 48
This phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by a collapsed follicle that begins to grow and form a corpus luteum (yellow body) which secretes progesterone and estrogen. Progesterone levels increase and the endometrium prepares to accept a fertilized egg. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate (due to decreased progesterone and estrogen levels) menses will occur and the cycle starts over. If fertilization does occur the corpus luteum continues to secrete these hormones for about 3 months until placenta forms.Typically days 15-29 (to the onset of menses).
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Question 48 Explanation: 
Secretory phase
Question 49
Fetal growth restriction due to Maternal hypertension is associated with what other finding?
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Question 49 Explanation: 
A small placenta
Question 50
This fetal abnormality that presents with a dislocated cerebellum and the obliteration of the cisterna magna has what descriptive name?
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Question 50 Explanation: 
Banana sign
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